Conference of Ministers (General Council) and is formed from the contributions of member countries.
first, strategic interests of a long-term nature, which are not always consistent with Russia’s; secondly, a certain commitment from the West; third, the absence of an undisputed leader.
One of the main factors determining these features was the desire to extract and transport energy from the Central Asian and Caspian regions outside Russian territory and under control.
Most of the non-EAEU states have formed an informal association GUUAM (Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova). In the case of intensification of economic cooperation between its subjects, one could expect the emergence of an alternative center of influence in Russia in the CIS.
World Trade Organization: regulation of international trade. Abstract
Regulation of international trade at the interstate level, is a jointly agreed by the governments of different countries on the basis of compromise agreements (legal provisions, norms, procedures, agreed mutual obligations, recommendations) in the field of economic policy and practice that reflect the interests of member countries
Regulation is aimed at creating certain preconditions that contribute to the further development of global relations between the states concerned, in particular, by achieving stability and predictability of market access.
The main directions of comprehensive regulation of world trade in modern conditions are the following:
creation by the interested states of the contractual and legal basis of trade and economic relations, including the most important principles and norms; elaboration of agreements on the application at the national level of a set of trade and political means of influencing world relations, defining the framework and opportunities for the use of certain trade policy instruments; formation and further development of international institutions that contribute to the achievement of agreements and the settlement of disputes arising between the participating countries, their associations and groups; exchange of information and experience in organizing trade and economic relations.
The topic of this essay: “The WTO and its role in regulating international trade” is extremely relevant. In the modern world, the bulk of world trade relations are carried out under the supervision of international economic organizations. Especially now that Ukraine is striving with all its might to join the World Trade Organization.
The purpose of the abstract is to study the issue of a new international institution – the WTO, to explore the goals and functions of the international economic organization that regulates world trade, to consider its organizational structure, the mechanism of decision-making in its areas …
This work gives an idea of the complex international interstate mechanism on the basis of which international trade has developed in previous decades and which in its new capacity becomes the basis for the development of international exchange of goods and services in the coming decades. On the basis of this international mechanism, trade and political regimes have been built and will be built, which is suppressed by most countries of the world, and they are already being applied in strict form to Ukraine’s exports and imports.
Establishment and operation of the WTO
The World Trade Organization is one of the youngest international organizations to succeed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The GATT as an international organization no longer exists, but there is the GATT agreement, which is significantly amended and is no longer the main piece of international trade legislation. The WTO entered into force in January 1995. Its creation is the result of difficult and multifaceted international trade negotiations in which 125 states participated. The GATT negotiations were called the Uruguay Round (negotiations were opened in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in September 1986, hence the name).
These talks set a record for their length (September 1986 – December 1993) and for the wide range of issues that became the subject of negotiations. The negotiations were formally concluded at a meeting of member states in Marrakesh on April 15, 1994, with the signing of a final act opening the WTO Agreement.
The WTO Agreement and all its agreements stipulate that WTO members had to negotiate with each other to reduce barriers to trade in goods and services.
In its activities, the WTO will follow the procedural practice and decisions taken by member countries of GATT-1947. Article XI of the Agreement stipulates that the GATT-1947 system of decision-making by consensus will continue to operate within the WTO. In cases where consensus cannot be reached, decisions may be taken by simple vote, with each participating country having one vote.
The WTO has the status of a legal entity and enjoys all the privileges and immunities offered by a specialized agency of the United Nations. WTO budget (127 million Swiss francs (approximately 80 million US dollars)). approved by the Conference of Ministers (General Council) and formed from contributions from member countries. The agreement stipulates that the WTO will continue the practice of the GATT in this area. Each country’s contribution to the GATT was proportional to its share of international trade.
Purpose and functions of the WTO
The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organizational mechanism aimed at narrative essay topics for grade 8 ensuring the implementation of the legal documents created as a result of the Uruguay Round, creating a basis for further negotiations in the field of international trade in goods and services.
The model on the basis of which the WTO is created is the GATT, which in fact for several decades 1948-1994 served as an international trade organization. The WTO Agreement states that the WTO will be guided in its activities by GATT decisions, procedures and practices.
The main purpose of the WTO was to replace the old, fragmented GATT system with a new, integrated international organization, empowered to implement the principles and rules of international trade agreed during trade negotiations. The Agreement on the Establishment of the WTO consolidates into a single, subordinate to this organization, a system of all agreements and arrangements reached as a result of multilateral trade negotiations within the GATT. From a legal point of view, the practical application of the results of the “Uruguayan” round, given the whole set of provisions of the GATT and, in particular, the arrangements of the “Tokyo” round, would be much more difficult, if not impossible.
Therefore, the negotiators decided that all agreements reached during the multilateral trade negotiations are an integral part of the General Agreement – and, consequently, the WTO – and the countries participating in the Agreement assume all obligations. knitting contained in it.
The World Trade Organization is the only legal and institutional basis for the world trade system.
The WTO system is designed to perform the following functions:
it acts as a set of multilaterally agreed rules governing the conduct of member governments in trade. Strictly speaking, these are the rules of conduct of states and their trading entities in world markets; it serves as a forum for trade negotiations aimed at liberalizing trade and making it more predictable, either by opening up national markets or by strengthening and expanding the rules themselves; it acts as an international tribunal, allowing WTO governments to settle disputes with each other.
Today, the WTO has 144 members, covering more than 95 percent of world trade and more than 85 percent of the world’s population.
The organizational structure of the WTO is defined in Art. IV Agreement on the Establishment of the WTO. The highest governing body of the WTO is the Conference of Ministers. It meets at least once every two years, usually at the level of trade or foreign ministers of the WTO member countries. The Conference has the power to decide on the most fundamental issues, such as new rounds of multilateral negotiations.
The current management and oversight of the agreement and ministerial decisions is carried out by the General Council. It meets several times a year in Geneva. As a rule, the General Council consists of ambassadors or heads of missions of WTO members. The functions of the General Council also include resolving trade disputes between WTO members and conducting periodic reviews of their trade policies.
The General Council controls the activities of subordinate bodies:
Council for Trade in Goods, which monitors the implementation of the General Agreement on Trade in Goods. It oversees the activities of 14 committees monitoring the observance of WTO principles and GATT – 1994 agreements on the most important areas of the WTO in the field of trade in goods. Council for Trade in Services, which monitors the implementation of the General Agreement on Trade in negotiating Services, as well as assistsating groups on issues such as basic telecommunications, movement of individuals, maritime transport services. It is composed of the Financial Services Trade Committee and the Professional Services Working Group. Intellectual Property Council, which monitors the implementation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. It also deals with issues related to the prevention of conflicts related to international trade in counterfeit goods.
In addition to the above bodies, the WTO has working and expert groups and specialized committees. Their functions are to address the implementation of certain parts of multilateral agreements, as well as other issues of interest to member countries, such as competition rules, investment, regional trade agreements, environmental aspects of trade and the admission of new members.
Conclusion. The WTO is a complex and branched mechanism involving hundreds of specialists, experts in various fields of economics and law, and which is in constant motion and development.
The peculiarity of the WTO in comparison with other international organizations is that the negotiations in the WTO involve billions of dollars, as they result in rules for the export and import of goods and services that directly affect the interests of consumers, producers and specific companies.