Only Catholics and Uniates can live in Bielsko.
They also denied the spiritual and cosmic significance of water baptism, to which only adult believers were admitted. An interesting cult detail that testifies to the kinship of Socinianism with heresy and anti-Trinitarianism was the celebration of the Sabbath (although in their communities everyone was allowed to choose a day off at will).
Thus, both in religious practice and in church life, the Socinians were tolerant, rejecting rigorous norms of behavior, formalism, and restrictions on individual rights. In this, in fact, they were the successor heirs of the Reformation ideals, which were proclaimed in the classical Protestant movements, but remained unrealized.
In Ukraine, the free-thinking direction of Socinian teaching was not only insensitive to the understanding of the general population. This doctrine was considered outright blasphemy, a blasphemy of traditions and norms of public life, a challenge to general morality. It is no coincidence that most authors, even in the recent past, portrayed Socinianism particularly unattractive. Despite the full support of feudalism, it was recognized as a dangerous sect capable of undermining the existing system.
This revealed the spirit of an era and a society built on the oppression of the individual, when an opinion that contradicted the official ideology was completely rejected and its bearers destroyed. Therefore, the historical fate of Socinianism in Ukraine is quite natural.
The last period of the history of the denomination – 40-50-ies of the seventeenth century. – concerns, mainly, Ukraine. At this time, the Polish-Lithuanian state began an offensive. Polish authorities are gradually restricting the activities of the Socinians in Lesser Poland and Galicia. In Cracow, a certain Rymarchyk from Poznan was burned “for blasphemy.” The Royal Court in Warsaw in 1611 sentenced to death the Italian emigrant Franco de Franco “for insulting the Eucharist” 37. In the same year, an autodafe was committed against a burgher from Bielsko, Ivan T.shkovich, who had previously “pulled out his tongue, cut off his arms and legs” 38.
Tyszkowicz’s case became especially popular throughout the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. For almost a year, a freethinker was investigated, whom Andriy Lyubenetsky calls a brother from the former Orthodox Popovych family (his uncle Ivan Vasyl and brother Hryhoriy, who managed to avoid the massacre, were also Aryans). 39. There were no communities in Bielsk, but in the surrounding villages towns (Mordakh, Surazh, Hungary) there were many of their meetings. This worried the church authorities.
On May 19, 1611, the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Hypatius Potius issued a decree according to which only Catholics and Uniates could live in Bielsko. It was in May that the Tyszkowicz brothers “listened” to the magistrate, admitting that they did not find any mention of the Trinity in the Bible. Ivan refuses to swear in the name of the Trinity. He was defended by an influential noble Protestant deputation, which included Peter Goriysky, Jacob Senensky, Stanislav (Andrew’s father) Vyshovaty, Stanislav Lyubenetsky Sr. and others. 40. However, their protest was rejected and the autodafe took place.
In 1627 a similar situation arose with a nobleman from Przemyśl, Sviatopolk Bolestrazhytsky. He was threatened with execution for the write your lab report for you Polish translation of the free-thinking treatise of the French philosopher P. de Molino “Heraclitus” (published in Krakow, 1625). However, due to his noble origins, Bolestrazhytsky escaped death.
The tribunal in Lublin ruled that the defendants pay a fine and burn the book in public.
These facts were the beginning of the storm that loomed over the Socinians. In 1638 their school in Rakov was closed, in 1644 – the school in Kiselin; in 1647, the verdict of the Sejm court closed all Socinian schools and printing houses in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the same year, another work, Iona Schlichting’s Christian Denomination, was publicly burned in Warsaw. All this was perceived by the Catholic Party as a signal to the mass persecution of the Socinians.
Since the late 1940s, anti-Socinian repression has intensified in the Polish-Lithuanian state: churches have been closed, their property confiscated, and supporters of the current (regardless of their social status) banished (deprived of the protection of the law until expulsion ). In this regard, J. Lukaszewicz wrote: “In Poland, the terrible times of the Spanish Inquisition were restored, and many heretics died then at the stake.”
In the 40s of the XVI century. The main organizer of the movement in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the grandson of Faust Sotsin, Andriy Vyshovaty, who moved the center of Socinianism to Volyn and Kyiv region. A pupil of the Rakiv Academy and several foreign universities, scientist, writer, active religious figure, Vyshovaty lived for several years in Pisky, Kiselina, Halychyna, Berestechko, trying to establish schooling and printing in Ukraine. In this activity he was assisted by the Socinian gentry, who owned many towns and villages in Pobuzhye, Volhynia, Zhytomyr, and Kyiv.
In its environment in the last (40-50s) period, in addition to the former Orthodox families Nemyrych, Chaplych, Goysky, stand out Stanislav and Paul Orikhovsky (Arian line of a large Protestant family), the Lyubenetsky family (Andrew, author of “Poloneutichii”, his brother Krzysztof, one of the protectors of the Raków Academy and Minister of the Assembly in Volhynia, the latter’s son Stanisław, author of a work on the history of the Reformation in the Commonwealth, as well as their numerous relatives) , the Pszypkowski family (Nicholas with his sons Samuel, Krzysztof, Yuri, Vaclav, Jan and Stefan), as well as his brothers, nephews, etc.). We call mostly men who at that time had civil rights, could receive public office. However, Socinian history knows the names of women who also took an active part in church affairs.
In 1643, at the invitation of Yuri Nemyrych, Vyshovaty came to the Left Bank of Ukraine and lived in Shershny for a year. In the mid-1940s, a strong Socinian center was formed here, created by the efforts of the Nemyrychs, Goyskis, Sukhodolskis, Rupnivskis, Babintsy, and Abramovichs. Although Vyshovaty himself later returned to Volhynia (he held the post of minister here in Halychyna and Ivanychi), and then to Lublin, his activity in the Kyiv region was quite fruitful.
He agitated for the relocation of many Socinian scholars, teachers, and writers. They lived in Lesser Poland, but, frightened by the actions of the Polish government and the Catholic Church, were forced to seek new asylum. Thus, in 1631 Samuel Pszypkowski emigrated from the Cracow Voivodeship to Doilid (near Białystok in Podlasie), and in 1640 he was already known among the Kyivan gentry as the owner of the Zemsky estate (according to some sources, in Toporyshche) and the marshal of the relational sejm in Zhytomyr November 15, 1641 On January 2, 1645, Pszypkowski took part in the Sejm of the Kyiv Voivodeship in Zhytomyr, where, together with other nobles, he signed another protest against the religious persecution of Protestants42.
Socinian figures – emigrants and people from the local nobility – continued their scientific, educational, literary and translation activities in Ukraine. According to D. Williams, in the 40-50’s in Ukraine they not only wrote new works (for example, at the Kiselinsky Synod in 1639 it was decided to work on the next edition of “Rakovsky Catechism” and “Catechism” by Jerzy Schoman for distribution among the local population, and at the synod in Charkov in 1651 – on the printing of an updated edition of “Confessions” by Iona Schlichting), as well as preparing for the establishment of a local printing house, even discussing the possibility of translating major Socinian works into Russian.
Decisions on the printing house “in Ruthenia” were made, in particular, at the synod in Rashkov in 1655, which was chaired by Minister Pavel Morzhkovsky. As for the Russian-language works, which, however, have not been found, among them, according to D. Williams, should be a translation of Schlichting’s “Confession” 43. This assumption is quite possible, because in the 40s and 50s in Ukraine there were indeed several Socinian works published (place unknown) in Polish using Latin and Ukrainian words and expressions.
This is the third edition of the “Brotherly Declaration” (1646) co-authored by S. Pshypkovsky, P. Stoinsky and Y. Nemyrych44. We also mean “Yuri Nemyrych’s Script” mentioned by O. Levitsky. It is reproduced in excerpts in Ukrainian by M. Bryk in the analysis of the correspondence between Nemyrych and Pshypkovsky45.
And although most Socinian works at this time were still published either in Poland or abroad, the place of their writing in the 1950s was Ukraine. These works form a significant part of the “Library of the Polish Brethren, which are called Unitarians” – a multi-volume edition of Socinian works, which was published in 1665-1668 in Amsterdam. For the fourth century, this edition (later supplemented by new works) is regarded as a landmark of philosophical and religious thought, which marked the evolution of European thinking in the New Age.
The first systematizers of the library were Andriy Vyshovaty (he emigrated from Poland in 1660), his son Benedict, Stanislaw Lubenetsky, Daniil Nemyrych, Samuel Pszypkowski, and others. The final version of this monument of world importance belonged to foreign scholars, primarily Christopher Sand. However, this is another page of Socinian history.
During the 40-50’s in Ukraine, in fact, fully formed two branched Socinian centers. The first was Volyn, which consisted of the main assemblies in Kiselina and Berizka (the estates of Yuri and Martin Chaplychiv-Shpanovsky), as well as smaller communities in Krylov, Lyakhovtsi, Morshtyn, Sedlisky, Halychany, Dazhvychi, Ivanychi, Zhulyn, and others. Among the most famous church figures in these communities were Poles, Germans, and Czechs.
These are the theologian and teacher Matviy Tverdokhlib, the famous poet Yakub Rynevych-Trembetsky, his brother Pavlo (born in Kiselina), Andriy Vyshovaty, Yuriy Durosh, Jan and Lavrentiy Stegmany, Jerzy Volker, Jan Stoinsky (minister in Lyakhovisti), his cate Krzysztof (Minister in Goscha and Chernyakhiv, about whom we read: “Even Adam Kisil willingly consulted with him” 46), Jan Pastorius (family doctor Senyut).
Along with them, Ukrainians are gaining more and more authority. These are, for example, Yuhym Rupnivsky, the son of Mykola, a lord from Ostrov who studied abroad, was a minister in Kiselin, Lyakhovtsi, Sedlisky (where, at the same time, he taught the children of Pavlo Sukhodolsky, Podchash Kholmsky) , his brother Luka (minister in Berizka and Kiselin). ).